double marker test
What is the use of this test?
To assess the following in an unborn child
– mental retardation
– Birth defects
1 Birth defects are many ways
- Down Syndrome – There are many types of problems
- Kidney does not work properly, heart problemEdward
- small mouth, small jaw, short neck
- Back part of the skull is prominent or occiput
- Chest short or springy and wide set nipples
- dysplastic or malformed ears
- Even in this, the child remains mentally retarded.
- Lips prevail in this disease
- Hands and feet do not devlop right
3 Neural tube defects – ntd
- Craniorachischisis – completely open brain and spinal cord
- Anencephaly – open brain and lack
- Encephalocele – herniation of the meanings (and brain)
- Iniencephaly – Retroflexion in skull occipital and defect bone of the head with excessive head
- Spine bifida occulta- Asymptomatic closed NTDs in which the entire vertebrae are not closed properly.
- Closed spinal dysraphism – Lack of at least two vertebral arches tinged with a lipoma
- Meningocele – protrusion of the meanings (filled with CSF) through a n defect in the skull or spine
- Myelomeningocele- Open spinal cord (with a meningeal cyst)
Dual Who should get the test done?
- Urma over 35 years
- Family history of birth defects.
- IVF pregnancy
- Previous child born with Down syndrome (or similar genetic conditions) case
- History of insulin dependent diabetes
- When to order this test?
- 11-14 weeks of pregnancy
- Components of dual marker
- Free beta hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin)
- PAPP- a (pregnancy associated plasma protein a)
What is normal rage?
- Free b hCG :25700 – 288000 mIU / ml
- PAPP A – greater than 0.5 MoM
Free beeta HCG test high What is the meaning of?
– Free beta hCG is a glycophotin hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. This high level is an indication of a higher risk of trisomy 18 and down syndrome.
PAPP – A test low what is the meaning of?
PAPP – A Is an important plasma protein. A low level of plasma protein is a sign of the risk of Down syndrome
Dual test Requirement ?
– Latest ultrasound report
– No fasting requirement
Dual test positive what is meaning of?
– Parents can go for termination of pregnancy as per MTP roules
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